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The frequency of Coaxial cable

Coaxial cable is the most commonly used transmission line for RF and microwave applications, because it provides reliable transmission with the benefits of wide bandwidth and low loss and high isolation. Major manufacturers of transmitting equipment, i.e. radio and TV, radar, GPS, emergency management systems, air and marine craft, use coaxial cables. The uses of coaxial cable apply to any system in which signal loss and attenuation must be minimized. Unlike waveguides, coaxial cable has no lower cutoff frequency but what about its upper frequency?

The frequency of Coaxial cable


Like other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, radio frequency (RF) is identified by its frequency in Hertz (Hz) or wavelength in meters. An inverse relationship exists between these two concepts such that as frequency increases, wavelength decreases, with the reverse being true as well. The strength of a radio frequency signal is measured in Watts. A frequency band refers to a designated section of the RF spectrum like, for example, the AM and FM band used in radio broadcasting and, within this band, a section of spectrum is referred to as bandwidth. Frequency is identified as the number of reverses or cycles in the flow of alternating current (AC) per second. For example, broadcast stations operate at frequencies of thousands of cycles per second and their frequencies are called kilohertz (kHz); higher frequencies are in millions of cycles per second and are called megahertz (MHz). Radio frequency is the frequency band which is primarily used for transmission of radio and television signals and ranges from 3 MHz to 3 GHz. Microwave frequencies range from Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) 0.3 – 3 GHz, Super High Frequency (SHF) 3 – 30 GHz to Extremely High Frequency (EHF) 30 – 300 GHz.

Max Frequency

With some exceptions, most coaxial cables do not have an actual cut-off terms of a specific stop-band frequency but instead use the term cutoff to refer to the highest frequency tested by the manufacturer, or when the frequency reaches a point where the coaxial cable becomes a waveguide and other modes, aside from the transverse-electromagnetic mode (TEM), occur. Hence, a coaxial cable cutoff frequency could be where the coaxial cable remains within specification, or within a reasonable margin to avoid transverse-magnetic (TM) or transverse-electric (TE) propagation modes. Though coaxial cables can still carry signals with frequencies above the TEM mode cutoff, TM or TE transmission modes are much less efficient not desirable for most applications.

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