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What's the Encoder Sensor?

Encoder is a kind of sensor. It compiles and converts signals (such as bit streams) or data into signals that can be used for communication, transmission and storage. Encoder converts angular displacement or linear displacement into electrical signal, the former is called code disc, and the latter is called code ruler. According to the detection principle, the encoder can be divided into optical type, magnetic type, inductive type and capacitive type. According to its calibration method and signal output form, it can be divided into incremental type, absolute type and hybrid type.

M12 connector

Encoder component

1. Mechanical interface

The mechanical interface includes all components that allow the encoder to be coupled to the machine or application equipment, including: shaft; Flange; A housing.

2. Code wheel (or magnetic actuator or linear scale)

The encoder wheel (or disk) defines the transmission code of the pulse; It is composed of a support made of plastic, glass or metal materials, and the support is engraved with a pattern formed by alternating transparent or opaque parts. On a linear scale, this pattern is replaced by a static opaque strip. When magnetic sensing is used, the magnetic circuit (north south) mode is used to replace the code wheel or linear scale.

3. Photoelectric receiver (or magnetic sensor)

The photoelectric receiver is made of a group of sensors (photodiodes or phototransistors), which are illuminated by an infrared light source. There is a scale wheel between the receiver and LED.

The magnetic encoder system is made of a rotating driver with a magnet and a magnetic sensor to convert magnetic field changes into electrical signals.

4. Electrical interface

M12 cable

The way in which the encoder transmits data to the receiver at the electronic interface. The electrical signal (digital or analog) is transmitted to an intelligent device through the encoder cable, such as the interface board, PLC, etc.

Encoder is mainly used to detect the speed, position, angle, distance or counting of mechanical movement. Many motor controls, such as servo motors equipped with encoders for motor controllers to detect commutation, speed and position.  

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